# Calculate Energy Loss Using the Hazen-Williams Formula

## What factors should be considered when applying the Hazen-Williams formula to calculate energy loss?

a) Pipe diameter

b) Water velocity

c) Pipe material

d) All of the above

Final answer:

## Answer:

When applying the Hazen-Williams formula to calculate energy loss, the factors that should be considered are pipe diameter, water velocity, and pipe material. These factors directly influence the energy loss in the system.

**Explanation:**

To calculate energy loss using the Hazen-Williams formula with a coefficient (c) equal to 120, the factors you should consider are pipe diameter, water velocity, and pipe material.

**Pipe diameter:** Pipe diameter affects the frictional resistance to flow. A larger diameter will generally result in lower energy loss due to reduced friction.

**Water velocity:** Water velocity plays a critical role in determining the rate of energy loss. Higher velocities cause more friction and increased energy loss.

**Pipe material:** The pipe material influences the 'c' value in the Hazen-Williams formula, which is an empirical measure of roughness and its effect on flow resistance.

Therefore, when using the Hazen-Williams formula to estimate energy loss in a piping system, it is essential to take into account all the above factors, as they play a crucial role in the accuracy of the energy loss computation.